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Often due to an ankle sprain but can also be caused by ankle instability, arthritis, gout, tendonitis, fracture, nerve compression (tarsal tunnel syndrome), infection and poor structural alignment of the leg or foot. Ankle pain can be associated with swelling, stiffness, redness and warmth in the involved area. The pain is often described as an intense dull ache that occurs upon weightbearing and ankle motion.



Many people may unnecessarily suffer the pain of bunions for years before seeking treatment.The visible bump actually reflects progressive changes in the bony framework of the front part of the foot. The big toe leans toward the second toe, rather than pointing straight ahead. This throws the bones out of alignment—producing the bunion’s bump.Symptoms usually appear at later stages, although some people never have symptoms.



Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) deformity of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth or fifth (little) toes. This abnormal bending can put pressure on the toe when wearing shoes, causing problems to develop.Hammertoes usually start out as mild deformities and get progressively worse over time. If left untreated, hammertoes can become more rigid and will not respond to nonsurgical treatment.



Not all children have symptoms, but others will complain of tenderness or cramping in the foot and leg. Parents may notice an outward tilting of the heel, clumsiness in walking and difficulty with shoes.  
PTTD is often called adult acquired flatfoot because it is the most common type of flatfoot developed during adulthood. It typically occurs in only one foot and is usually progressive if not treated early.

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Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the band of tissue (the plantar fascia) that extends from the heel to the toes. Heel pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, a condition that is sometimes also called heel spur syndrome when a spur is present. Heel pain may also be due to other causes, such as a stress fracture, tendonitis, arthritis, nerve irritation or, rarely, a cyst.



Fungus of the toenails is a common problem that can affect people of all ages, although it most commonly affects individuals who are older. Toenail fungus often begins as an infection in the skin called tinea pedis (athletes foot). The fungus often starts under the nail fold at the end of the nail. Over time, it grows underneath the nail and causes yellowing or brownish discoloration. It can also cause thickening and deformity of the toenail.



Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon — the thick fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. The condition causes pain and tenderness just outside a joint.
While tendinitis can occur in any of your tendons, in the foot it's most common around the arch (posterior tibial), back of the heel (achilles) and outside of the ankle (peroneal).



People living with diabetes are prone to having foot problems, often because of two complications of diabetes: nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation. Neuropathy causes loss of feeling in your feet, taking away your ability to feel pain and discomfort, so you may not detect an injury or irritation. Poor circulation in your feet reduces your ability to heal, making it hard for even a tiny cut to resist infection.



The most common neuroma in the foot is a Morton’s neuroma, which occurs between the third and fourth toes. The thickening of the nerve that defines a neuroma is the result of compression and irritation of the nerve. This compression creates enlargement of the nerve, eventually leading to permanent nerve damage.
A plantar plate injury refers to damage to the strong supporting ligament of a toe, located on ball of foot. Most commonly the 2nd toe is involved, but any toe can be damaged.

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